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Pirouz Nahavandi, Pembunuh Kalifah Umar adalah Pahlawan Iran

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Pirouz Nahavandi, Pembunuh Kalifah Umar adalah Pahlawan Iran

Postby walet » Fri Nov 04, 2011 6:00 am

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pirouz_Nahavandi

Image
Foto Makam Pembunuh Kalifah Umar, Pirouz Nahavandi

Pirouz Nahavandi (or Piruzan) (also known as Abu-Lu'lu'ah al-Nahawandi Arabic: ??? ????? ??????????) was a Persian Zoroastrian soldier who served under the commander Rostam Farrokhzad, but was captured in the Battle of al-Q?disiyyah in 636 CE when the Persians were defeated by the Arab-Muslim army of Caliph `Umar ibn al-Khattâb on the western bank of the Euphrates River. After he was brought to Arabia as a prisoner, he managed to assassinate Umar in the Muslim year 23 (644–645 CE).

His original name was P?r?z (Arabicized: F?r?z, "the victorious"; other transliterations of his name include Feroz, Firouz, Abu-Lo'lo'a, Abu Lulu, Abu Lolo, and Baba Shuja-e-din).

Contents
1 Early life
2 Move to Medina
3 Narrative
4 Umar's murder
5 Death
6 Cultural Figure
7 Tomb
8 References
9 External links



Early life

Not much is known about Piruz, except that judging by his name, he was probably born in Nahavand, Iran, and was a Zoroastrian or Agnostic convert to Islam.[1]

Move to Medina

In addition to his superb military skills, Pirouz was a skilled workman, a carpenter and artisan, and his owner allowed him to live in his own household in the Islamic capital of Medina (although according to Ibn Sa'd, Mughira ibn Shu'ba, his owner who was also the governor of Basra, had written 'Umar from Kufa; and then 'Umar had given Mughira special permission to send Abu Lu'lu'ah to Medina—since captives were not permitted to live in Medina).

Some controversial stories (all stemming from one Arab source) say that Abu Lu'lu'ah hired himself out as a carpenter, and gave two dirhams a day to his owner in return for his limited freedom [while Ibn Shihab's account states that every month Mughira took 100 dirhams from his wages (although the account of Abu Huwayrith, also in Ibn Sa'd's Tabaqat, states 120 dirhams, four per day)]. He supported a wife and child on the rest of his earnings.

Narrative

After the defeat Pirouz Nahavandi woke up with an arrow mark in his chest as a slave of a Muslim[citation needed]. Pirouz Nahavandi said "We Persians ruled the world for more than 1,000 years, we fought the Romans for seven centuries and never took anyone as slaves, but you Arab-Muslim took me as a slave. You should let me die rather than save me so that I could serve you Arab-Muslim as a slave"[citation needed].

After Pirouz Nahavandi learned about Arab Quraysh culture and Islam he asked to join the army of Islam. Having gained the trust of the army of Islam he was able to join Umar ibn al Khataab, that is how Pirouz got the chance to execute his plan of assassinating Umar.

Umar's murder

One controversial story [which summarizes and is largely in agreement with the account (ultimately deriving from Ibn Shihab) included by Ibn Sa'd in his Tabaqat] goes thus: Abu Lu'lu'ah felt that he had to give too much of his wages to his owner. He approached Umar, the caliph, and begged for relief, saying (according to Abu Huwayrith's account in Ibn Sa'd's Tabaqat) "The taxes [Mughira] are levying on me are more than I can bear." Mughira (his owner), as a Muslim, was subject to Umar; surely Umar could enforce justice.

However, Umar, after questioning him about how much his income was in proportion to the tax that Mughira was demanding from him (according to Ábu Huwayrith), told Abu Lu'lu'ah that he was such a skilled workman that he was sure to make a good wages; there was no need to reduce his obligation to his owner. That did not satisfy Piroz, and he went away sulking. There were Persian children slaves in Madina. Seeing them, Piroz would say, "You have been enslaved at such a tender age. This Umar sees eaten my heart. I will take his heart out". He made for himself a dagger with a very sharp edge and smeared it with poison.

[Ibn Sa'd adds: So in his robe he wrapped his two-headed dagger, the grip of which was in the middle, and hid himself in a corner of the Medina mosque.

When Umar went to wake up those sleeping in the mosque for morning prayers, Abu Lu'lu'ah leaped upon him and stabbed Umar six times [three times, according to Ibn Sa'd]. He attempted to make his way out of the mosque, slashing at the bystanders [11 men besides 'Umar, according to Ibn Sa'd] as he fled.

Death

There are different narrations of how he died. Bukhari's Sahih states that he killed himself when he got caught minutes after murdering Umar. The Shia say he escaped and ended up in Kashan, where, seven years later, he was captured and killed.

Cultural Figure

Pirouz Nahavandi is regarded by many Iranians as a National Hero, and as a cultural figure they jokingly associate him with Haji Firouz who ushers in the Iranian New Year[citation needed].

Tomb

Pirouz Nahavandi's tomb "is located on the road from Kashan to Fins, constructed in an eleventh century distinctive Persian-Khwarezmian dynastic architectural style, consisted of a courtyard, porch and conical dome decorated with turquoise coloured tiles, and painted ceilings. The original date of its construction is unknown, but in second-half of fourteen century it was fully restored and a new tombstone was placed over his grave." from the website of the Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS).

Controversy was caused recently when the International Union for Muslim Scholars called for the tomb to be destroyed, a request which was not well received by Iranians, even among those who support the Islamic Republic, according to the CAIS website, having being perceived as a specifically anti-Iranian act.

References
^ A socio-intellectual history of the Isn? ?Ashar? Sh???s in India, Volume 1, by Saiyid Athar Abbas Rizvi, pg. 32

External links
Presidential Decree Orders destruction of Tomb of Persian National Hero Firuzan: http://www.persianmirror.com/Article_det.cfm?id=1575&getArticleCategory=58&getArticleSubCategory=32
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Re: Pirouz Nahavandi, Pembunuh Kalifah Umar adalah Pahlawan Iran

Postby walet » Fri Nov 04, 2011 6:15 am

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umar#Shia_views

Menurut Syiah, Kalifah Umar adalah Penghianat Muhammad, berbeda dengan Suni yang menganggapnya sebagai junjungan.

Shia views
Main article: Shi'a view of Umar


Umar is viewed very negatively in Shi'a literature and is regarded as a traitor to Muhammad, an usurper of Ali's rights of succession. According to Shi'a beliefs, his role during Muhammad's lifetime is questioned as he was not assigned to any civil or military authority.[74] Some Shi'a writers have accused him of killing Muhammad's daughter Fatimah (see Fatimah's death). The Shi'a believe that Fatima, wife of Ali and daughter of Muhammad, was physically abused by him. These sources report that the event caused her to miscarry her child and eventually led to her death soon after.[75] (see Umar at Fatimah's house).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shi'a_view_of_Umar

Shia view of Umar

Contents
1 Shia view
1.1 Historical context
1.2 Sources
2 Shi'a Biography
2.1 His early life
2.2 Before embracing Islam
2.3 Embracing Islam
2.4 Hafsa
2.5 Pen and paper
2.6 Usama's detachment
2.7 After Muhammad
2.8 Coup d'état
2.9 Aftermath
2.10 Abu Bakr's era
2.11 Umar's Caliphate
2.11.1 Jurisprudence
2.12 Death
3 Legacy
4 Views on the Shi'a view
4.1 Non-Muslim view
5 See also
6 References
7 External links

Historical context

Umar ibn al-Khattab was one of the earliest figures in the history of Islam. However, the Shia have traditionally asserted that the Sunni perspective of Umar, including ideas inadvertently borrowed by certain Western orientalists, is at best inaccurate, and at worst largely fabricated.

While Sunnis regard Umar ibn al-Khattab in high esteem and respect his place as one of the "Four Righteously Guided Caliphs," Shia hold an opposing perspective of him. They do not view him as a legitimate leader of the Ummah and believe it to be factually provable that Umar and Abu Bakr conspired to usurp power from Ali. Shia believe that the Sunni view of Umar is an inaccurate one, created by the later Umayyad dynasty to honour the man that gave power to the first Umayyad ruler and third Sunni Caliph, Uthman. In this way, it gives legitimacy to Umar's consultation that started their own dynasty, a corrupt one in both Shi'a and Sunni view.

Shia believe that the Umayyad view was propagated with lethal force and heavy duress and as time went on, that view became predominant and eventually taken as truth, cemented by the works of Bukhari. However, Shi'a believe that despite the perceived white washing of Umar, bits of his true qualities can be found in all sources, including Sunni ones. They also believe that invented positive traits attributed to him do not hold a closer scrutiny.
[edit]
Sources

Citations from the Qur'an are used in the following format: (Qur'an 2:124).

However, Shi'as also have their own sources and in most cases the critique towards Umar is much greater in those sources. Most of the narrations critical of the Caliphs were purged during the Ummayyad dynasty. Some survived, but the most outspoken of them were eradicated. However a small minority group strove to keep alive those narrations, mainly through the descendants of the male Shi'as that survived the Battle of Karbala.

In contrast to Sunnis, Shi'a do not hold as authentic any narrations that depict Umar in a positive view, for example him being promised paradise. In neutral cases, Shi'a and Sunni have different views on the narrations. Many times Shi'as feel that Sunnis blatantly disregard narrations that even their own most respected scholars have authenticated. For example, a narration in Sahih Bukhari states explicitly that Ali and Zubair opposed Umar during the succession to Muhammad, or another narration that states that Umar was not invited to Fatima Zahra's secret funeral. According to Shia scholars, Umar is also known to have said "I would much rather be a tree or a bird than be human as I would not have to face judgement, and would be free"

The Shi'a view of Umar differs from the Sunni view in mainly two areas. First, regarding his everyday character. The Sunni's claim he was wise and just while the Shi'as describe him as an ignorant usurper. Secondly, his attitudes and actions regarding the succession to Muhammad. The Sunnis argue that he acted in good faith to save the community whilst the Shi'as claim he seized the power in bad faith.
[edit]
Shi'a Biography
[edit]
His early life

Shi'as point out that Umar was an idol worshiper and that this disqualifies him from being a leader for all Muslims. Shi'as believe that no Muslim leader has ever worshipped anything else than God. To qualify as a Muslim leader, he would either have been a Muslim before Islam or known that there was only one God worthy of worship before knowing about Islam. In other words, a man designated to protect and guide all Muslims at least must have a pure enough character to have refrained from the grossest sin in Islam. This is also complemented by the Shi'a belief that none can be an Imam (leader), whether prophet (Abraham) or non-prophet (Ali), except from the appointment of God (Qur'an 2:124). It is purity of character that Shi'a address on this issue and not sin, not to be confused with the removal of sin due to accepting Islam.

The Shi'as hold against him the fact that he buried alive his own daughter, a typical pagan practice of the time.
[edit]
Before embracing Islam

Umar's father, al-Khattab, was a staunch follower of polytheism.[1] When Muhammad first declared his message of Islam, Umar resolved to defend the traditional religion of the Quraish, polytheism or idolatry according to Islamic nomenclature. Umar was adamant in opposing Muhammad and very prominent in persecuting the Muslims. Umar's hatred for Islam extended even beyond the death of Muhammad. Umar spread the religion of Islam further and wider than any other single individual in Islamic history, he did it however, for fame and fortune.

Other questionable acts are reported as follows: Lubaynah was a slave girl of Umar. She accepted Islam and Umar would beat her mercilessly until he was tired. He would then say, "I have only stopped beating you because I am tired." She would say, "may God treat you in the same way." He asked her to renounce Islam, but she stuck to her faith.[2] Zinnira was another slave of Umar. One day when Abu Jahl was visiting Umar and he took it upon himself to beat her. Zinnira was beaten so harshly that she lost her eyesight.[3]
[edit]
Embracing Islam

One day, the Quraish called for somebody to volunteer himself for the assassination Muhammad. Umar volunteered himself for this job, at which everybody exclaimed: "Surely, you can do it, Umar!"[2] On his way he met Sad ibn Abi Waqqas, who asked where he was going. Umar said: "I am after finishing Muhammad." Sa'ad replied, "but do you not see that Banu Hashim, Banu Zuhrah and Banu Abd al-Manaf are likely to kill you in retaliation?" Umar, upset at the warning, said, "it seems that you also have renounced the religion of your forefathers. Let me settle with you first." On saying this, Umar drew out his sword. Sa'ad announcing his Islam, also took out his sword. They were about to start a duel when Sa'ad said, "you had better first set your own house in order. Your sister and brother-in-law both have accepted Islam." Umar went to his sister and found her reciting verses of the Qur'an. He became infuriated and gave her a slap which caused her to bleed. However, his sister did not denounce her religion. He went to meet Muhammad.[4]

Umar then made his way to the house of al-Arqam.[1], Muhammad had received information of this and he stood up and took hold of Umar's collar saying, "Umar, why do you not desist from this action? Will you not refrain lest Allah reveals that information about you that He has already revealed about Waleed ibn Mugheera?"[5] Umar then converted to Islam that day.

A Sh'ia scholar states:“ Some historians claim that Umar was a most awe-inspiring man, and when he accepted Islam, the idolaters were gripped with fear for their lives. But this is only a case of a dominant myth being in conflict with ugly facts. When Umar accepted Islam, the idolaters remained where they were, and nothing changed for them; but it was Muhammad who was compelled to leave his home, and had to find sanctuary in a desolate ravine. He spent three years in that ravine, and during those years of exile, his life was exposed to deadly perils every day and every night. During this entire period of more than 1000 days, Umar, like many other Muslims in Makkah, was the silent spectator of the ordeals of his master. He made no attempt to bring those ordeals to an end.[6] ”

[edit]
Hafsa

Hafsa, the daughter of Umar, was originally married to Khunais ibn Hudhaifa. When he died, Umar sought to find a husband for her. He approached his friend Uthman who said "I am of the opinion that I shall not marry at present," after thinking about the proposal for a few days. Umar became angry with Uthman and asked Abu Bakr the same thing. Abu Bakr did not give him a reply, causing Umar to become even more angry with him than he was with Uthman. Umar then preceded to Muhammad to discuss the previous two incidents. Muhammad reassured Umar by saying that "Hafsa will marry one better than Uthman will marry one better than Abu Bakr." Umar was obviously alluding to the fact that Hafsa was to marry Muhammad and that Uthman was to marry a daughter of Muhammad.[7] Shi'as reject this hadith as forgery because they argue that it makes no sense to keep the intention to marry a secret from Umar but not from Uthman and Abu Bakr. Furthermore, Muhammad was pressured in to marrying the daughter of Umar the same way Umar pressured Ali to marry his daughter to him.

Hafsa was married to Muhammad in 625. Muhammad's household was not always peaceful as his wives were in two groups.[8] Umar's and Abu Bakr's daughter along with two other wives constituted the group that Shi'as believed troubled Muhammad. Umar said on one occasion:
"Hafsa, the news has reached me that you cause Allah's Messenger trouble. You know that Allah's Messenger does not love you, and had I not been (your father) he would have divorced you." (On hearing this) she wept bitterly.[9]

Shi'as believe that Umar's behavior towards his daughter is another example of his brute character. They see his fatherly advice to Hafsa in her time of despair as unworthy of any father, and especially of a future supposed protector and guide of the Muslim nation.

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